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Full text of "North Carolina Symphony: Teachers Handbook"

NORTH CAROLINA 
SYMPHONY TEACHERS 
HANDBOOK 



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1982 - 1983 
50th ANNIVERSARY 
SEASON 




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DEDICATION 
T o 
ADELINE DENHAM McCALL 

who has served the North Carolina Symphony with devotion for 50 years 
and whose love of music and enthusiasm for teaching have touched 
millions of lives, we respectfully dedicate this publication. 



NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY 
TEACHERS HANDBOOK 
1982-33 
JACKSON PARKHURST, EDITOR 
************************************** 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 2 

STATE OF THE ART: MUSIC IN THE CLASSROOM by Barbara Bair 3 

PRAIRIE OVERTURE by Robert Ward 

THE COMPOSER " 7 

THE MUSIC 7 

THE CLASSROOM by Ann R. Small 8 

WATER MUSIC : FOUR MOVEMENTS by G. F. Handel 

THE COMPOSER 11 

THE MUSIC 11 

THE CLASSROOM by Paula Reynolds 12 

"CAN-CAN" from ORPHEUS I_N HADES by Jacques Offenbach 

THE COMPOSER 15 

THE MUSIC 15 

THE CLASSROOM by Cheryl Rhodes 16 

"POLOVETSIAN DANCES" from PRINCE IGOR by Alexander Borodin 

THE COMPOSER 17 

THE MUSIC 17 

THE CLASSROOM by Patricia Beyle 19 

VARIATIONS ON " AMERICA " by Charles Ives 

THE COMPOSER %\ 

THE MUSIC 21 

THE CLASSROOM by Ann R. Small 22 

THE SONGS AND RHYTHM SCORE 

"When The Saints Go Marching In" zl 

"America" 2 ; 

RHYTHM SCORE: "CAN-CAN" 27 

BIOGRAPHIES 28 

NOTES 28 
****************************************************************************** 

North Carolina Symphony Teachers Handbook (c) 1982 by The North Carolina Symphony 
Society, Inc. Reproduction of any part of this book without written permission 
is strictly forbidden. 

North Carolina Symphony P. 0. Box 28026 Raleigh, North Carolina 27611 

Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education 



INTRODUCTION 

May 14, 1982 marked the 50th Anniversary of the first North Carolina 
Symphony concert. The Symphony has had a long and distinguished career of 
bringing great orchestral music to the people of North Carolina, and we are ex- 
tremely proud to have reached this milestone in our history. We are equally 
proud to welcome two new members to the North Carolina Symphony staff. 
Gerhardt Zimmermann is our new Artistic Director/Conductor, and Tom McGuire be- 
came Executive Director in March, 1982. Both men believe in the educational 
mission of the North Carolina Symphony and are dedicated to it. 

This year is also a year of change for the Symphony Education Program. 
This year we are trying a new approach to the publications used in preparation 
for the North Carolina Symphony Children's Concerts. The new title of the 
booklet for students is Your North Carolina Symphony Book. The one for 
teachers is The North Carolina Symphony Teachers Handbook. I asked my friend, 
Suzanne Newton*, to join me in writing Your North Carolina Symphony Book to 
assure that it would be readable for elementary age students. Included in it 
is a section on the North Carolina Symphony, the instruments of the orchestra, 
and notes about the music on the program. It also contains two songs the 
children will sing and play at the concert and a rhythm score by Associate 
Conductor Jim Ogle. In the Teachers Handbook I have asked music teachers 
from across the state to share their ideas on ways to teach the music on this 
year's program. These sections are meant to be suggestions only. I want to 
emphasize that in teaching the music there is no substitute for the music, 
itself, as the primary source. 

I am also pleased to be able to include an article by Barbara Bair on 
the state of the art in the music classroom. Reading it has reminded me of the 
mission of the North Carolina Symphony Education Program. Certainly, we want to 
educate, but not as an end in itself. The facts of a composer's life or the 
number of times that a theme is repeated are interesting and important, but they 
don't make us want to dance. They don't make us want to sing and clap our hands 
and say, "I like that!" Only the music can do that. It is very easy today to 
find reasons not to dance and sing and clap one's hands. Problems abound and 
difficulties arise by the score. But beneath the indifference, the preoccupation, 
and even the cynicism of daily life, the desire exists in us all to be excited. 
Not just in a sensational way that is so easy with today's gadgets and gimmicks, 
but in a more satisfying and secure way that we all know and believe that music 
can give. It is that exclamation, "I like that!" that I want from e\/ery child 
who hears the North Carolina Symphony. If we with your help and hard work, can 
elicit that response, we have done a service for the child, the community, and, 
I believe, the world. It cannot be our responsibility alone. We have the right 
to seek and expect the aid of parents, classroom teachers, principals, legis- 
lators, and all those who are in a position to help. We are entrusted with the 
great gift of music and the responsibility of bringing it to life for our children 
It is also a privilege, because we know the joy it can bring, and it is joy that 
can last a lifetime. 

Jackson Parkhurst 
Director of Education 
and Assistant Conductor 



*Suzanne Newton is the author of a number of books for young people, four of 
which have received the American Association of University Women Award, 
North Carolina's highest award for juvenile fiction. 



STATE OF THE ART: MUSIC IN THE CLASSROOM 

Barbara Bair 

The purpose of this article is to share what this author has observed 
as the kind and quality of music instruction that children receive in 
North Carolina, and what materials and methods are being used to implement 
instruction. In order to present an overview, let us look at the stated 
program purpose for music in the public schools in North Carolina. 

The role of music in the public school curriculum is a 
vital and \/ery basic one. It serves to sharpen and focus 
perception, to provide for nonverbal as well as verbal 
communication and supplies a vehicle for enjoyment and 
personal expression. Through sharing music from the broad 
span of history as well as from varied cultures and ethnic 
groups, students increase awareness of their own relation 
to the world. In creating music which has not existed 
before, the student discovers new dimensions and capabili- 
ties not previously suspected. 

Beginning in the early years with fundamental experiences 
in basic elements of music, melody, rhythm, harmony and 
form, the student becomes aware of an ever-widening spiral 
of possibilities for developing and interrelating these 
and other elements into more complex organizations. 
Through singing, listening, rhythmic, creative and instru- 
mental experiences, skills, attitudes and concepts begin 
to develop and accumulate. As confidence is acquired 
in the varied areas of music, the entire process--the 
music experience—serves to integrate and develop the 
student's personality. 

Ultimately, music in the public school program serves to 
develop aural literacy. More simply, this is the ability 
to hear, to know what is heard and what meanings it can 
have. The pleasure of producing sounds which have meaning 
to oneself and to others and of receiving those sounds 
produced by others makes music an attractive element of the 
curriculum. Whether the individual pursues music as a 
consumer, performer, creator, teacher or in many other ways, 
the basic approach to it is provided through the public 
school programJ 

In March 1977, the State Board of Education approved the Course of 
Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools K-12 as North Carolina's official 



Course of Study for Elementary and Secondary Schools K-12 . Raleigh: 
North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction, 1977. 



program of studies for each of the various subject areas and courses 
taught in the elementary and secondary schools of the state. Cultural 
Arts was specifically designated as one of the six areas of study for 
all elementary children. To accomplish instruction in music at the elemen- 
tary level, there are many school systems in North Carolina who employ public 
school and instrumental music teachers. Some systems employ cultural arts 
directors or music supervisors to work with classroom teachers and they 
share a joint responsibility in planning and providing music programs. The 
total responsibility for music instruction in other situations is placed 
in the hands of the classroom teacher. It is difficult to obtain data 
about the various arrangements for teaching music, but one survey by the 
National Education Association provided these data at the national level : 

The practice reported by . . . about 40 percent 
(of the schools) was to have the classroom 
teacher teach music with help from a music 
specialist .... The elementary-school class- 
room teacher had to teach music on his/her own in 
almost as large a percentage of schools in grades 
1, 2, and 3, but in grades 4, 5, and 6, the 
teacher carried the full responsibility for music 
in less than a third of the schools. Music 
specialists alone did the teaching in about 
one-fifth of the schools in grades 4-6, and in 
12 to 15 percent of the schools in grades 1-3. 

Classroom teachers and music specialists differ in their training and 
assignments and therefore, fill two distinct roles as teachers. The class- 
room teacher when teaching music can focus on one grade level and one 
specific group of children, while the music specialist is responsible for 
one subject area but teaches many children at many different levels. In 
North Carolina, most public school music teachers meet an average of 850 
different children in one week and some meet the children only once every 
two weeks. In a combination arrangement—classroom teacher and music 
specialist working together—where there are specific plans and suggestion and 
readily available resources, the classroom teacher can supplement and/or pro- 
vide an adequate, if not fully successful, music program. The new basal music 
texts, Holt, Rinehart and Winston's The Music Book and Silver Burdett's Music , 
and recordings, purchased by individual units, will be available for use in 
the classrooms Fall of 1982. There are many supplementary suggestions for 
ways to use music with other subjects. There is an abundance of splendid 
listening examples provided on the recordings and accompanying call charts and 
other materials to help make listening experiences more enjoyable. 

In this author's estimation, if the classroom teacher continues to serve 
as a positive role model for children he/she includes some music eyery day for 
students. This writer is constantly amazed at the ability and resourcefulness 



Music and Art in the Public Schools . Research Monograph 1963-M3. 
Washington, D. C: National Education Association, 1963, p. 12. 



of classroom teachers and very often is surprised when visiting schools 
to learn that music is scheduled as a part of each day's activities. 
Successful teacher training programs prepare classroom teachers so that they 
can provide children with the kind of musical environment which will stimu- 
late interest and participation. 

Music specialists are no longer confined to the piano bench and only 
one approach to making music through singing. The successful music teacher 
always has and continues to use music itself as the instructional material. 
Many teachers in the state of North Carolina have completed Orff Certification 
and they involve children at an early age as composers in creating their 
own songs plus movement and instrumental compositions. Some systems have 
purchased Orff instruments and are continuing to support this method of instruction 
All successful music programs are based on listening, and this skill continues to 
be the central focus of general classroom music activities. Children are involved 
in movement to music in both creative and structured ways. Folk as well as social 
dancing has become an important part of the music curriculum. 

The needs of exceptional children are being met through music as more and 
more music teachers are seeking additional training in order to do a better job 
to help special children become the best that they are capable of becoming. 
Positive attitudes towards mainstreaming in music classes are in evidence and 
handicapped children are participating more often in music activities. 

There is more attention given to music reading and this is achieved in a 
variety of ways, including the use of music texts. Audio-visual materials of 
all varieties and kinds are available through the State Department of Public 
Instruction, media centers, public libraries and college and university resource 
centers. Both teacher-made and commercially-produced materials are used to 
enhance learning. 

Many live performances by artists-in-residence, college and university 
ensembles, the North Carolina Symphony, local symphony chamber groups, and others 
provide unforgettable music experiences for children throughout the state. 

Preparation for the North Carolina Symphony concerts is the highlight of 
many music education programs. The printed programs of study and suggestions for 
teachers provide a specific outline of study that can be used by both music 
specialists and classroom teachers. This has been and continues to be a special 
event in the lives of thousands of children in this state. 

Children are continually presenting performances at the elementary 
level. There are choral and instrumental concerts, small operettas or spec- 
ially created musicals, seasonal programs, city and county festivals and 
other special musical presentations that provide enjoyment for the schools 
and communities. 

Where music is a vital and important part of the program, the person 
ultimately responsible is the principal. His or her attitude is reflected in 
curriculum decisions of the school and more importantly an attitude of the 
children and classroom teachers toward music. The music teacher cannot be 



successful, and is not, in any situation without administrative support 
and positive relationships with other teachers. 

Music is alive and healthy in the state of North Carolina. There 
is still inequity in the music instruction provided for all children. 
As monies become less available there will be more reliance upon music 
specialists and classroom teachers working together so that "The Child's Bill 
of Rights in Music" is never forgotten. 

Every child has the right to full and free oppor- 
tunity to explore and develop his capacities in 
the field of music in such ways as may bring him 
happiness and a sense of well-being; stimulate his 
imagination and stir his creative activities; and 
make him so responsive that he will cherish and 
seek to renew the fine feelings induced by music. 3 



3 "The Child's Bill of Rights in Music," as quoted by Peter W. Dykema 
and Hannah M. Cundiff, School Music Handbook . Boston: C. C. Birchard & 
Company, 1955, p. 522. 



1982-83 CHILDREN'S CONCERT PROGRAM 



PRAIRIE OVERTURE 



ROBERT WARD 
(b. 1917) 

THE COMPOSER: North Carolina resident, Robert Ward, has received inter- 
national acclaim from both critics and the public. Also renowned as a 
conductor and music educator, he currently holds the position of Composer-in- 
Residence at Duke University. 

Ward was born in Cleveland, Ohio and was graduated from the Eastman 
School of Music where he majored in composition under Bernard Rogers and 
Howard Hanson. He attended graduate school at Juilliard and studied compo- 
sition with Frederick Jacobi and conducting with Albert Stoessel . He also 
studied with Aaron Copland at Tanglewood. Ward has served on the faculties 
of Queens College, Columbia University, Juilliard School of Music, and as 
President of the North Carolina School of the Arts. He was Composer-in- 
Residence at the Brevard Music Center in the summer of 1981. Ward has also 
had broad experience in the music publishing business, serving as Vice 
President and Managing Editor of Galaxy Music Corporation. 

Ward has composed chamber music, solo songs, and music for chorus and 
band. He has been particularly successful as an opera composer. In 1961 
his opera, The Crucible , was produced by the New York City Opera and won 
the Pulitzer Prize. His opera, Abelard and Heloise , was premiered in 
February of 1982 by the Charlotte Opera, and Minutes Till Midnight had its 
premiere at the Greater Miami Opera in June of 1982. 

THE MUSIC : Robert Ward's works are in the mainstream of 20th century music. 
They are tonal in musical language, utilize basic classical forms, and in- 
corporate a sense of lyricism that has been lost in much contemporary music. 
They are no less modern or up-to-date for this, however, and Ward's music is 
in the forefront of the American mainstream. He has incorporated and dis- 
tilled the best American idioms of harmony, rhythm, and form to produce music 
that is accessible to a broad cross-section of the public. 

The Prairie Overture was originally composed for band, and, on the en- 
couragement of a conductor-friend, Ward transcribed it for orchestra in 1963. 
It is basically a sonata-allegro form, although there is no strict, formal 
recapitulation. The work is based on three musical ideas: 

A robust and energetic opening theme* 

.Allegro 



fa.pi|.'fri?rr? i fjT r n r rTi i i 



ft 
A transition motive 



i V'ojffljj i J f - 



Tri/<«|>et$ Tofti 

A lyrical and flowing second theme 




The overture ends with an extended coda that builds in tempo and intensity to 



r Prairie 0verture (fc)1964 by Galaxy Music Corp. Examples used by permission. 



a jubilant climax. Although this concert overture is entitled "Prairie," 
there are no literal references to cowboy or western tunes. It is simply meant 
to evoke the spirit and energy of the wide open spaces and give a feeling of 
traditional American exuberance and optimism. 

THE CLASSROOM: BY ANN R. SMALL 

APPROACH I 

Concept : (Affective Domain) "Choosing on the basis of feel" and subjectively 
organizing."! 

Behavioral Objective : Given several hearings of "Prairie Overture," the student 
will be able to arrange ideas of prairie scenes in the order he feels that the 
music indicates. After arranging the order, the student will be able to sub- 
jectively point out the sequence of events as the music plays and discuss his 
reasons for the arrangement based on the way that the music sounds to him. 
Procedure : Prepare duplicate lists of "prairie scenes" such as the ones 
suggested below or any of your own choosing. Be sure to leave one or two blank 
spaces at the end of the list for the child to suggest a scene or character not 
listed that he hears. The following scenes are suggested: swinging along roping 
dogies ; rattlesnake ; ambus h; barn dance ; lone cowboy , stars over the prairie . 
DAY 1 . Have the music playing as the students enter the class, or put it on in- 
cidentally as they prepare for music. Ask the children to write on a sheet of 
paper the instruments they hear as they listen to the music formally for the first 
time. The purpose of this activity is to point out attention getters such as the 
glockenspiel, castanets and tambourine, trumpet unison part, and strong brass 
and percussive sections of the music. As the music plays, question the students 
from time to time as to what instruments they hear. For the second formal hearing, 
distribute the list of "scenes." Instruct the children to listen to the music 
and simultaneously put a check by any of the scenes that they think they hear. 
Remind them that the scenes listed may not be in order. Also, encourage them not 
to check all the scenes in the first minute of listening. If they hear scenes 
that are not listed, they may write them in the blank spaces on the list. You 
will want to collect the lists. DAY 2 . On another day, distribute the duplicate 
clean list. This time, as the children listen, have them number the scenes a_s 
they hear them occur, resulting in an order. [Remember that they may have some 
choices of their own.] Collect the lists. You may want to compare List 1 with 
List 2 to see if the children heard some of the same scenes that they indicated 
the first time that they marked the list. DAY 3 . Distribute seven or eight 5x8 
cards to each student. Ask the student to write the word or words 2 that describe 
the scenes he hears on the cards (one scene per card) as the music plays. Pro- 
vide spelling help. Play the piece again and let him "check" his card scenes. 
Have prepared about three posters with numbered 5x8 blocks. Have different 
children come to the front of the room and, as "Prairie Overture" is played, stick 
(with Scotch tape folded on the back) their scene cards on the poster as the 



1 "Choosing on the basis of feel" and "organizing 'subjectively'" are affective 
behaviors identified by Thomas A. Regelski in his book Principles and Problems 
in Music Education (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975) 

2 If crayons can be provided and scenes drawn by the children, interest will be 

en han ced. Let the drawing occur, however, when the music is not playing as 

it takes time and the musical sequences will be lost while a child works on one 
scene. Colors add interest. 



scenes occur in the music .3 Later let the children verbally describe the 
musical scenes. This will indicate to you the way they talk about what they 
hear and their reasons for the associations that they have made . 
Evaluation : The important thing to discern through the above activities is 
whether or not there is any individual consistency in associations. If even 
one or two parts of the music are consistently recognized (such as the castanet- 
tambourine part and the trumpet unison section), then the children will have 
successfully listened. Also, they will have been exposed to several meaningful 
hearings of the music. Note : It is important not to do this all on one day. 
Remember that in this approach there are no "wrong" ideas. 

APPROACH II 

Concept : (Psychomotor Domain) Finding the beat and keeping it through even and 
syncopated music. 

Behavioral Objective : After locating the "beat" in Prairie Overture, students 
will eventually be able to move to the downbeat in the non-syncopated sections 
of the piece that are steady in tempo. Based on the way that the rhythm feels, 
they will be able to indicate their recognition of syncopated sections verbally. 
While counting aloud J.-2-3, 1-2-3. . , gifted and talented or advanced students 
will be able to demonstrate a steady downbeat through syncopated sections that 
are steady in tempo. Note : There is a Vivace section at the end of the piece 
preceded by accelerando . I I n I i I in 

Procedure : DAY 1 . Start by echo clapping in 3/4 JJJ JJJ [Students echo] Jl;J| 
jj~^ [Students echo]^JJ J | J ^ [Students echo] etc. Try to approximate the 
tempo of "Prairie Overture.""" As you play the handdrum JJJ|JJ J , 
have the students step in place or sway on 1_. Begin Prairie Overture. As 
the music plays, ask students to try to find a steady beat. Tell them to 
listen for the glockenspiel. It plays on "1" (the downbeat), and the music 
moves in 3. Starting with the glockenspiel part, have them count aloud. Ask 
the students to tap the downbeat on their desks. Count with them and model the 
action. As some of the students begin to keep the beat, have them stand and 
step in place or sway to the beat. After establishing the beat in an even 
section, ask the students to tell you when in the music it becomes difficult to 
keep the beat. This should constitute the introduction to their understanding 
of syncopation rather than an explanation of what syncopation is. When the 
even sections return, help them to get back on the beat by counting aloud and 
moving with them. Play the piece again as far as through the first even section 
(winds, glock, and forward). See if they establish the beat more quickly this 
time. Help them by swaying and counting aloud yourself. You need not play the 
piece all the way through this time. DAY 2-3 . Repeat Day l's activities. 
Encourage more continued counting and tapping/swaying through the syncopated 
sections after the glock part and even sections. Repeat this as long as you feel 
it is necessary. Eventually add rhythm instruments to the downbeat on syncopated 
sections if possible. 

Evaluation : Ultimately, the goal is to have students recognize by feel the 
difference between syncopated and even sections of the music. They will be able 
to do this in varying degrees as well as at varying age levels. If some are able 
to keep the downbeat during the even sections and recognize when the music changes 
to syncopation the objective will have been accomplished. Note : The success of 
this approach will depend heavily on the teacher's ability to keep the beat. 
Several listenings and rehearsals may be necessary. 

Three numbered posters will give more children opportunity to reveal their ideas. 
Having more than one poster will also point out that the same music can evoke 
different ideas in different people. The posters and 5x8 cards are worth the 
trouble and money. 



■'0 



pRMRlE OveRTURF 






+ «rcu5Stif\) 




APPROACH III (Road Map) 



11 



Concept : (Cognitive Domain) Aurally recognizing instruments and changes in 
the music. 

Behavioral Objective : By recognizing aural clues in the music notated on a 
"Road Map" (see page 10) students will, after several hearings, be able to move 
to "places" on the road map at the time that the clues occur in the music. 
Procedure : Review with the students the instruments in each orchestral family. 
Familiarize the students with the road map by asking questions that bring out 
the musical clues that they will hear, and clear up any confusion about pro- 
cedure for following the map. Ask questions such as, "How will you know when 
you are at 'Syncopated City'?" "What will you hear at 'Copycat Hill'?" 
"What is an exchange? What would you expect to hear in a 'Brass Exchange'?" 
Start at the beginning of the map and "walk" them through it so that they under- 
stand that they must follow the roads (heavy black lines between places) and 
numbers to correctly proceed through the sequence. Caution the students not to 
leave one place on the map until they hear the clue(s) for the next place. As 
the students listen to Prairie Overture for the first time with the map, 
occasionally ask, "Where are we now?" During the second or third hearing, walk 
around and compliment students as they move correctly on the map. Continue to 
occasionally call out the correct places. 

Evaluation : Observation will reveal the extent to which students can correctly 
relate aural musical clues to the ones on the map. If, after several hearings, 
students can consistently recognize two or three places on the map while listening, 
the procedure will have been successful. 



GEORGE FREDERICK HANDEL 
(1685-1759) 



"OVERTURE" "BOURREE" 



"HORNPIPE" & "FINALE" from 

WATER MUSIC SUITE 



THE COMPOSER : Handel was born the same year as Johann Sebastian Bach in the town 
of Halle (now East Germany). His father wanted him to become a lawyer, but fate 
was against it. The boy began to study organ at age seven with the famous 
organist and composer, Friedrich Wilhelm Zachau, and, at the age of twelve, became 
Zachau's assistant. By that time he was already a fluent and prolific composer. 
Handel tried to study law as his father wishes, but, after a one-year attempt, he 
took a job as violinist at the Hamburg Opera. The years from 1702 to 1713 were a 
period of real growth for Handel. He composed while traveling throughout Europe 
and England. It was in the field of opera that he had his earliest successes, and 
his fame grew. 

The English were particularly taken with Handel's music. When his former 
patron, the Elector of Hanover, became George I of England, Handel decided to settle 
in that country. In 1727, he became a British subject. When English taste for 
'opera waned, Handel began writing oratorios, and it was in that form that he is 
still genius. Handel was always a man of robust physical health, and, despite total 
blindness after a series of cataract operations, he performed and accompanied his 
oratorios almost until the day of his death. His influence on English music has 
been profound, and he lies buried in the Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey. 

THE MUSIC : The Water Music was composed in 1717 and finally published in 1740. 
It was originally 25 individual movements from which Sir Hamilton Harty (1879-1941 ) 
selected six which he arranged for modern symphony orchestra. We will play 
movements I, III, IV and VI on your concert. 

"Overture"--This is a rondo movement with all themes based on a repetitive 
rhythm that we first hear in the French horns: 




ttr** -f ia~ 



i: 



The important features of the movement are the use of syncopation and melodic 
contours following basic triads and scales. The instrumentation of this 
movement is pairs of woodwinds, four horns, tympani , and strings. 

"BoureV'—Most instrumental music of Handel's day was based on dance 
forms. A boure'e is a quick dance in duple meter that begins with a single 
upbeat and is binary in form ( 1|- Aft B : ll )• This movement is for strings alone 
and is all derived from the initial melody: 

k 



i^^ 



^m 



i^m 



£ 



£ 



"Hornpipe"--A hornpipe is a primitive relative of the clarinet. It was 
made of the shinbone of a sheep with part of a cow's horn attached as a bell 
and was used to play dance music which somehow became associated with sailors 
The dance is in triple time and binary in form. This movement is scored for 
woodwinds (including piccolo) and strings. The primary theme is: 




"Finale"--Handel was not describing the water in his Water Music as 
Debussy did in La Mer, but was providing a musical accompaniment to being on 
the water. The "Finale" captures that purpose. It is a ternary (ABA) form 
and is scored for all previously mentioned instruments (excluding piccolo) and 
two trumpets. Themes of the A-section are: 



:hd 



im 



Alkejeo <W«i5o 



To tt~ 



m 



m 



im 



n 



r rrrrirrr r* 



f 



The contrasting B-section is based on: 






VbcwJ ? 



B 



THE CLASSROOM 



BY PAULA REYNOLDS 



The Overture: In this splendid movement, Handel has very effectively used the 
device of instrumentation. This can be capitalized upon when teaching this 
piece to your students. The entire suite is full of contrasts with overture 
being no exception. I chose to develop the instrumental contrasts used in this 
piece. 

1. The Overture offers a good opportunity to focus on some particular instru- 
ments of the orchestra. After a presentation on the families of instruments 
and their various timbres, play the Overture and see if the class can identify 
the contrasting timbres used. The nature of the music itself, with dynamic 
contrasts and the "echo" effect, makes it easier for children to hear the con- 
trasts between the horns and the strings and winds. 

One way to extend this idea and to further increase the children's know- 
ledge of instrumentation is to have them do some group projects. Divide the 
class into small groups with each group doing some research on a particular 
instrument or family of instruments used in this movement. Each group would 
be responsible for giving an oral presentation of their topic to the class. 
Allow them to develop their own style of presentation, however encourage them 
to shy away from simply reading a report. This is not to say that a report is 
not valuable. It is just much more effective when supplemented with illustra- 
tions, listening examples, guest speakers — perhaps from the school orchestra, 
etc. The report could also be delivered in an interview style with one person 



13 



posing as a reporter and another as the instrument being presented. After 
the presentations listen to the Overture again and identify the instruments 
that have been discussed. I feel that the discovery method is a yery effective 
one for children on the fifth and sixth grade levels as it encourages them to 
think on their own and to develop their own interpretations of the music. 

2. The echo effect used in the Overture also lends itself marvelously to an 
exploration through movement. Divide the class into three groups for this 
exercise. One group each will represent the horns, the strings, and the 
double winds. It might be helpful to select a leader for each group. When 
each group hears the appropriate instrument, they will move accordingly. Let 
the groups devise their own style of movement. Here are some suggestions: 

Have the group represent a particular moving object, for instance a flower blowing 
in the wind, with each person representing a petal attached to the main stem 
(the leader). The object might also be more abstract and create an illusion of 
beauty rather than function or form. Perhaps streamers, scarves, or ribbons of 
various colors may be used to enhance the movement. It is often easier for the 
child to feel comfortable in movement when he/she can hold something tangible. 
Upon the appearance of the different instruments all but the appropriate 
group(s) will freeze. As instruments sound together, all groups will move 
simultaneously. 

3. Another way to present this piece is to have the class listen to the 
Overture and jot down their first impressions. These can be discussed as a class 
and related to the musical things happening in the Overture. Perhaps a call 
chart would help the class to visualize the events of this movement. Here is 
one example: 

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Bourree : This movement lends itself most naturally to the concept of dynamics. 
Children can easily respond to its startling contrasts in volume. 

1. One way in which to develop these dynamic contrasts is through creative 
movement. To prepare the class for movement, do some basic movement exercises 
to try to free them from some of their inhibitions. For example, the students 
can become more aware of their own space by first moving only their heads to 
perhaps a drum beat. Then progress to their shoulders, isolating the movement 
there. In this manner isolate the movement in different parts of the body, i.e., 
hips, knees, and feet. 

Another exercise is that of mirrored movement. Have each student find a 
partner. One partner will be the "leader" and the other his/her mirrored re- 
flection. The movement initiated by the leader is imitated by the "mirror." 

After the class is prepared for movement divide them into two groups. One 
will represent the soft dynamic level, the other the loud. Have each group de- 
velop their own appropriate movement to be used when their dynamic level is 
heard. They might move as a group, as individuals, or in groups of two using 
the mirror technique discussed above. Practice alternating between groups before 
putting this activity with the music. Listen to the music together without 
movement so the children can identify where their particular dynamic level is 
used. Then put the movement activities with the music thus increasing their 
ability to distinguish between contrasting dynamic levels. 



14 



2. Another way to present this piece upon first listening is to have 
the class draw what comes to their minds while listening. Suggest that they 
use two contrasting colors for their drawings. Explain that they do not 
have to draw a specific picture but may use abstract shapes or forms. Have 
several students explain their art to the class. Discuss the use of contrast 
in art as related to contrast in music. 



Hornpipe : The light and airy mood created by this movement gives us a nice 
contrast to the other movements of The Water Music Suite. This contrast can 
be explored in several ways. 

1. The contrast brought about by the instrumentation is one of the most 
evident in the entire suite. The use of the piccolo, flute, oboe, clarinet, 
bassoon, and strings once again opens up another opportunity for the class to 
discover the instruments of the orchestra. Have the class fill in a seating 
chart for the entire orchestra to discover where these particular instruments 
are seated. Note that the quieter instruments are seated near the front and 
discuss the practical reasons for this. Have the class prepare a large poster 
display of the seating chart with individual drawings of the different in- 
struments placed in their appropriate spot on the chart. This will help to 
prepare the students visually for the symphony concert. 

2. A discussion of how the music makes the children feel would also be a 
worthwhile pursuit. Perhaps they might develop a story or fantasy of their own 
to describe the events of this movement. You might suggest an opening state- 
ment or theme to help them get started. Let the entire class become involved 
in this project. Original illustrations would also be an attractive addition. 

3. Another point to emphasize is the form of this movement. It is a clear 
binary form with each section repeated. (A A' B B') To enable the class to 
visualize the form a chart might be used with the lettered form and a visual ex- 
ample included. Point to the correct symbols as the music progresses. Then see 
if members of the class can identify the sections by pointing them out on the 
chart as they occur. 

Finale : This movement will perhaps be the most familiar to the students. With 
its exciting, driving force it will be a good motivator for action in your 
classrooms. 

1. One aspect which I feel could be developed in the presentation of the 
principal motive and its development throughout the piece. Before the class 
listens to the Finale, expose them to the rhythm of the motive in some other 
fashion. For instance, this motive could easily be incorporated into simple 
body ostinati. I have included a scored version of this ostinati below. (The 
German word "patschen" refers to a movement where the hands "pat" the thighs.) 



iHftCj 



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0- 



f 4 4 



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ifa 



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t 



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Once this is mastered, transfer the movements to percussion instruments-- 
one instrument for each movement. One example is: timpani or drums for the 
stamps, temple blocks or wood blocks for the patschen, tambourine for the claps, 



n 


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15 



and triangle for the finger snaps. Perform this score several times before 
adding the music. Have the children listen to the Finale at least once and 
jot down the number of times they hear this theme. When they can clearly 
recognize its appearance add the percussion ensemble to get a real feel for its 
driving rhythm. 

2. Another possibility for this movement is an organized dance. Here is one 
suggestion; however, remember that this may be modified or changed completely to 
fit your individual students. Pair the class, or a part of the class, into 
partners--boy and girl partners! In promenade position partners walk in a 
circle formation to the right. On each occurrence of the rhythm (four times), 
partners will "dip" or slightly bend their knees. This will continue for the 
duration of what I have labeled "Part 1" of the theme. For "Part 2," the 
couples will turn with their right hands joined high above their heads for six 
beats, then with left hands joined for six beats. (This is extended upon the 
second entrance of the theme, with the turns being done twice each.) Then the 
couples move back into promenade position for the second entrance of the theme. 

For the next part of the piece, where the brass enters with "Part 2" of the 
theme, the girls will take two steps to the center of the circle, curtsy, then 
step back. With the next entrance the boys will do the same, bowing in the 
center. Then all will move to the center, bow, and then step back. Finally, all 
will join hands and raise them as they go to the center and lower them as they 
step back. This coincides with the end of the A-section. 

For the B-section let the girls improvise movements for the first half and 
the boys for the second half. For the quieter sections only one or two dancers 
may be used. All dancers should be ready to repeat the first section of the 
dance at the Da Capo . 

3. This movement is also an excellent one to introduce the concept of form. 
Let the class try to figure out which sections are alike and which are different. 
Call the like ones "A" and the different ones "B". This can be related to the 
sections of the dance. Thus, they discover the ABA form. Discuss how this form 
progresses, then have the students apply this knowledge to a different art form. 
Using modeling clay, give each child three small clumps to work with. Have them 
mold them into three shapes corresponding with the three sections of the piece. 
The first and last shape should be alike with the middle one taking on a 
different form. 

JAQUES OFFENBACH "CAN-CAN" from ORPHEUS J_N HADES 
(1819-1880) 

THE COMPOSER : Although Offenbach is one of the most admired composers of French 
light music, he was actually born Jacob Eberst in Cologne, Germany. The son of a 
Jewish cantor, Offenbach took his name from his father's home town. At an early 
age, Offenbach went to Paris to study cello, spending his fourteenth year at the 
Paris Conservatory. At eighteen, he was a professional cellist at the Opera- 
Comique where, in later years, many of his operettas were to be performed. 

Offenbach had a real gift for melodic invention and an innate sense of the 
theater. His first operetta, Pepito , was received modestly by the Parisian public, 
but, by the time of the first performance of Orphee aux Enters in 1858, he was a 
famous man. He composed nearly a hundred operettas and one serious opera, 
The Tales of Hoffman , which was his crowning achievement. 

THE MUSIC: Offenbach believed that "a grain of wit is better than a bushel of 
learning" and devoted his musical talents to delighting and entertaining his 
audience rather than educating them. His music is not profound, but is brilliant 
and filled with wit and charm. 

Mark Twain called the can-can "a mixture of shouts, laughter, furious music, 
gay dresses, bobbing heads, flying arms, and then a grand final riot, with a 
terrific hubbub and a wild stampede." The origins of the dance are obscure. By mid- 
nineteenth century it was a favorite in Parisian dance halls with a reputation in 



16 



polite society for lewdness. (By today's standards it would probably be considered 
quite tame.) On the recording the "Can-Can" is found at the end of the overture 
and begins softly with strings and woodwinds: 



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THE CLASSROOM: 



BY CHERYL RHODES 



The "Can-Can" is a marvelous piece of music to use with children. It is 
a lively piece with rhythmic drive and easily recognizable themes. It can also 
be used to study certain musical symbols such as dynamic markings, repeat signs, 
first and second endings, staccato-legato, etc. I like to relate these symbols to 
real music to that the children can truly understand how they function in music, 
not as just something to memorize without meaning. The music is also fun to 
listen to so the children can enjoy their listening experience as well as learn 
from it. I have listed below some general ideas that can be used to study this piece. 

1. Play the music without any explanation. Have the children guess what the 
music is portraying. They could describe a scene, event, or tell what 
style or type of music they think it is. 

2. Play the main themes and have the children clap and hum along until they 
have learned the rhythm and melody to each one. This is also a good time to 
learn about repeat signs and first and second endings. 

3. Play theme identification games while lis t ening to the music 



theme 2 theme 3) and hold up 



Give each child three cards- jTheme 1 

the correct card for each theme. 

Write down on a piece of paper how many times they hear each theme 

and in what order. 

Divide the class into three groups and assign each group a theme to 

listen for. Have each group stand as long as their theme is being 

played and sit when it ends. You could also have each group make up 

a movement to do for their theme. 

Assign certain percussion instruments to each theme and play along 

with the assigned theme, either the rhythm of the theme or the 

steady beat. 




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17 

4. Study the dynamic markings piano (p) , forte(f), and crescendo (*-=HZ )• 
I go through several activities with the children using dynamics such 
as reciting poems at various dynamic levels, singing songs and noticing 
dynamic markings in the song book, playing instruments, and movement. 
After the children understand the dynamic symbols through active partici- 
pation, play the "Can-Can" and see if they can hea r the differen t dynamic 
levels in the piece. Give each child three cards : [ p~]J f LEJJs 1 anc ' 
have them hold up the appropriate card as they listen.' 

5. Learn about staccato and legato. Take a familiar song and sing it both 
ways. Do movement by tiptoeing for staccato and sliding for legato. Clap 
the themes from the "Can-Can" observing the staccato marks. Clap lightly 
the staccato notes and pat legs for the other notes. Contrast this piece 
of music with one that is legato such as a lullaby. 

6. Learn about the can-can as a dance form. It originated in Paris in the 
early nineteenth century and is characterized by high kicking and leaping. 
Make up your own dance using the hop-kick step. 

7. Lummi stick activities are a lot of fun. They develop motor skills, per- 
ceptual skills, increase concentration and the ability to follow directions, 
and develop rhythmic awareness. Creativity can also be encouraged by 
having children work out their own routines. The lummi sticks are wooden 
dowels ten inches long and three-fourths of an inch in diameter and can be 
used many ways by combining movement and dance steps while clicking the 
beat with the sticks. I have developed a lummi stick routine using 
various movements that my children have enjoyed doing in the past. These 
are just suggestions. You can have a lot of fun making up your own. 

You can make it as simple or as complicated as you like. 

Note: This music is in 2/4 time. Sometimes the counting will be by 
beats with the quarter note ( J ) as one beat, and sometimes by 
measures. W hen co unting measures the sticks are usually doing 
this rhythm: (J" ? (See page 18 for illustration) 



ALEXANDER BORODIN "POLOVETSIAN DANCES" from PRINCE IGOR 
(1833-1887) 

THE COMPOSER : Borodin excelled at two careers. Not only was he an accomplished 
musician and composer, but he also held a doctorate in chemistry. The illegitimate 
son of Prince Luke Ghedeanov and Avdotya Kleineke, he was registered, as was the 
custom, as the lawful son of one of the prince's serfs, Porfiry Borodin. He was 
raised in his mother's home and given an excellent education which included 
foreign languages, music lessons, and science. Borodin married Katherine Protopopova 
when he was twenty-six, and they lived in St. Petersburg all of their lives. Being 
an excellent pianist, his wife encouraged him to compose. Borodin died at age 
fifty-four of a burst aneurism while dancing at a medical academy carnival. 

THE MUSIC : Borodin was a member of what has come to be known as the "Russian Five" 
(Mily Balakirev, Cesar Cui, Nicholas Rimsky-Korsakov, Modeste Mussorgsky, and Borodin) 
These were composers whose desire was to develop a Russian National Music that sprang 
from Russian folk art. Borodin was primarily a self-taught composer and was modest 
about his work. He told his friend Balakirev, "I am a Sunday composer who strives 
to remain obscure." In the desire to create a truly "Russian" opera, Borodin worked 
for years on Prince Igor . Although the opera lacks sustained dramatic interest and 
is rarely performed outside the Soviet Union, there are many significant excerpts 
from the opera. One of the most brilliant is the "Polovetsian Dances" from the end 
of Act II (see Your North Carolina Symphony Book for the plot) . The dances are in 



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19 



seven sections and are built on seven themes 
Dance No. 1 : Theme I 






,„_LJ i Ij J MU j M 



Dance No. 2: Theme III 




jro Yivo 




Dance No. 3: Theme IV 



. (ABA form) 

Alllftjro Tom 



Theme V 




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Dance No 






Dance No. 5 
Dance No. 6 
Dance No. 7 



F 



Theme II and VI 
Identical to Dance No. 4 
Theme VII (and III & I) 

! ■'UJJJUJi^P 



THE CLASSROOM: 



BY PATRICIA BEYLE 



The Polovetsian Dances are a stirring, colorful reminder of the influence 
of the Russian Five. These dances will be considered from 4 different approaches 
to be used in the classroom, grades 1-6. The first approach will be the recogni- 
tion of specific instruments; the second, recognition of themes and rhythmic 
patterns; the third, recognition of the music as it was written for dance; and the 
fourth, recognition by discussion of this music as a part of a whole work and the 
story as a political issue of that time. 

APPROACH I 

The task of instrument identification is included for the obvious-learning 
sound discrimination and the parts in the whole of the orchestra. It doesn't 
need to be an isolated task, however, as the r e c urring instruments are identified 
with recurring themes and help to establish a continuity among the dances. 
The following chart offers a clue to the outstanding instruments. 

INTRODUCTION: Flute, clarinet and oboe each play the theme. A common 

pitch is sustained throughout the introduction. 
DANCE I: Oboe, English horn, flute and violin each have the melody. 

The harp is very evident as an accompanying instrument. 
DANCE II: Clarinet, flute and strings each play the theme. Trumpets and the 
Woodwinds play the theme from the Introduction as a countermelody. 
Tympani plays a solo lead-in to this dance. 
DANCE III: The Tympani and cymbals are evident in this strong 3/4 meter dance. 

This dance is in ABA form. 
DANCE IV: The strings are used percussively . Brasses are clearly identifiable. 
DANCE V: Oboe, English Horn and strings each play the theme from Dance I. 
DANCE VI: Bassoon and oboe play the theme that recurs from Dance IV. 

The strings are used very percussively. 
DANCE VII: The Woodwinds and strings play the theme that recurs from 



20 

Dance II. The trumpet plays the theme that recurs from 
the Introduction. This Dance is a good example of a full, 
brilliant orchestra. 

APPROACH II 

The recognition of the theme or rhythmic pattern is the most precise 
of the approaches offered. This uses the same seven divisions of dances. 
Before studying the specific dances establish a feeling of duple and triple 
meter. The new Silver Burdett series offers a verse and variation the children 

seem to like and understand. 

"Oliver Twist, "Oliver Twist, Twist, 

Can't do this, Can't do this, this, 

Touch your knees, Touch your knees, knees, 

Touch your toes, Touch your toes, toes, 

Clap your hands Clap your hands, hands, 

And over she goes." And over she goes, goes." 

APPROACH III 

Establish the meter of each dance and discover Dance III is in 3/4 and 
Dance IV is in 6/8, etc. After the meter and even beat of each dance is estab- 
lished, go to the prominent rhythm of each dance, usually the theme. Word 
association to these rhythms help the children remember and allows you to sneak 
in background information about the piece. These rhythms can be transferred to 
unpitched instruments as an extension of the activity. Even more challenging 
to them is to put the duple or triple meter verse in the sticks or drum and play 
the rhythm of the theme against it on an appropriate unpitched instrument. A 
brief guide to this activit y fo llows: 

INTRODUCTION: 4/4 D J JjJ J I jJ<J 

"Introduce Borodin so gradual ly" on jingle bells. 
DANCE I: 4/4 ^ jj~^ JJ) | fi~}J 

"Dancing girls swaying to and fro for the prince, etc.," on triangle. 
DANCE II: 4/4 The INTRODUCTION theme is an accelerated counter melody—jingle bells 
DANCE III: 3/4 * J -tyU JJlf\- J J^/j- J Jlf\ A J 

"Princ e Ig or, Kha n Kontchak, barbaric, slave dancers, sheer joy!" 
DANCE IV: 6/8 V~~j , I Drums and cymbals. This is the rhythm of the 

+ ^ + + i + percussive string. 

Accompaniment: 

"The Turks came marching one by one, 
The Turks came marching one by one, 
The Turks came marching one by one, 
The Russians lost the fight to Khan." 

My resource of the story line designates the personnel involved in most 
dances. The INTRODUCTION, of course, is a processional of all the dancers. 
The first dance-girls, the second-men, fourth-boys and men, fifth-girls, sixth-boys 
and men and, the seventh-the whole company. 

The following questions are offered as an extension activity in recognition of 
the story 1 ine. 

1. Discuss ways the music gives you an idea of the setting, the situation 
and/or the purpose. 

2. How did Borodin establish a continuity among the different dances? 

3. Discuss the situation in the story surrounding the Polovetsian Dances, 
specifically the Khan's treatment of the prisoner, Prince Igor. 






21 
APPROACH IV 

On the less precise and technical side, let them listen to this music that 
was written specifically for dance to stimulate their imaginative responses in 
movement. It is more effective, especially if a child has been sitting for any 
length of time, to do warm-up movements before listening. This stimulates their 
minds and bodies to focus in on the movement activity. 

A simple approach could be to have them listen to each section and then 
have them determine whether the dance could be done alone, with a partner, in a 
small group or in a large group. Next, determine some qualities in the music, 
such as whether the music vibrates like an electric toothbrush or a jack hammer, 
or whether it is smooth, swaying or swinging, or possibly percussive. Have them 
try some of these moves in a warm up so these experiences will be fresh in 
their minds. They might even determine before they move whether the music suggests 
any shapes or lines that might help in directionality across the floor or in body 
movement. Scarves would be an effective prop for the first dance with its smooth, 
oriental flavor. Small hula hoops held in their hands to circle or thrust in 
different positions proved a good prop for DANCE III, the 3/4 section. 

CHARLES IVES VARIATIONS ON " AMERICA " 

(1874-1954) 

THE COMPOSER : Leonard Bernstein has referred to Charles Ives as "our first 
really great composer. . .our Washington, Lincoln, and Jefferson of music." 
Until Bernstein premiered his Second Symphony in 1952, Ives 1 music was known 
only to a handful of listeners and fellow composers. Since that performance, there 
has been a widespread "discovery" of Ives' music and general acceptance of Ives as 
a major force in 20th century music. 

Although Ives 1 early musical training was unconventional, his environment was 
thoroughly American, and he was steeped in traditional American marches, hymns and 
songs, as well as European art music. His father, George Ives, was a Civil War 
band leader and music teacher and was, himself, a musical experimenter. He en- 
couraged Charles to follow his instincts in composition, and, before long, Charles 
began to combine several keys at a time, first, as a spoof and later as a serious 
technique. The Variations on " America " has early examples of this. Ives was 
graduated from Yale in 1898 where he took standard courses in harmony, theory, 
composition, and organ and was an excellent student. Rather than writing music in 
the traditional idiom of his teacher, Horatio Parker, Ives chose to follow his own 
taste and direction. Wisely, Ives realized that to compose as he wanted, he would 
have to find another way of earning a living. When he retired in 1930, the in- 
surance firm of Ives and Myrick had assets in the millions of dollars. In 1908, 
Ives married Harmony Twitchell who was his lifelong friend and companion. In 1918, 
he suffered a massive heart attack which was complicated by a pre-existing diabetic 
condition and which left him with a tremor. Holding a pen became difficult, and, 
except for editing and revising previous works, Ives produced no more music. 

THE MUSIC : Ives was a fiercely independent and self-reliant musician and never 
seemed to doubt the worth and validity of his music. He was a champion of all 
new music and devoted much of his time and financial resources to the support of 
other composers and their music. Fortunately, he lived long enough to receive 
some of the recognition he so richly deserves. 

The Variations on " America " for organ was composed in 1891 and was scored 
for orchestra by William Schuman in 1963. The score is based on the song "America," 



22 



and Ives gives the following divisions: 

Introduction: Theme 
Variation I: 16ths in woodwinds 
Variation II: Clarinet, horn, strings 
Interlude: Full orchestra; polytonal 
Variation III: 6/8 



Variation IV: "Polonaise" (castinets) 
Interlude: Soft brass; polytonal 
Variation V: 3 flutes & "running" 
Finale: Repetition of 1st trumpet 
4 measures, bridge and theme 



The polytonal ity in the first interlude consists of a canon with woodwinds, 
trumpets, and violins playing the theme in F major, followed a measure later 
by the violas, horns, and trombones with the theme in D-flat major: 



■ h i i ' i^ i' Ij i ^ 



THE CLASSROOM: 



BY ANN R. SMALL 



APPROACH I 

Concept: (Cognitive and Affective Domains) Recognizing theme and variations 
and "freely interpreting."!) 

Behavioral Objective : After several hearings the students will be able to 
verbally identify the sections of Variations on 'America" and attach a name 
of their choosing to each variation. 

Procedure : Sing "America" with the class in a comfortable key. Be sure 
that the words are available if they are not known. As the "Variations . ." 
are played for the first time, ask the class to sing the song all the way 
through anytime they hear it on the record. Sing with them and guide 
them to recognize the instances where the song is played completely. On 
the third or fourth hearing ask them to count the number of times the song 
is played throughout (they may include the big brass Interlude and this 
is acceptable). After they can recognize the Theme and five (or six) 
variations, have them create titles that depict American life, such as a 
carnival, a baseball game, etc., for the various sections. 

Evaluation : If the student can recognize the melody in at least two variations, 
the lesson will have been successful. The American scenes will indicate 
their concepts of the American way of life. 

APPROACH II (Road Map) 

Concept : (Cognitive Domain) Recognizing changes and instruments in the 

music. 

Behavioral Objective : After several hearings, the students will be able to 
follow the "Road Map," (See page 23 ) moving to the correct places at the 
correct time as indicated by the music. 



"Freely interpreting" is an affective behavior identified by Thomas A. Regelski 
in his book P rinciples and Problems in Music Education (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: 
Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 1975). 



24 



Procedure : Follow the same procedure of asking questions concerning 
"places" on the map as is suggested for the map of Prairie Overture else- 
where in this book. This road map (on "..America") offers options. The 
student must decide not only when to move but, in some cases, where as well. 
Remind them that a "road" (heavy black line) must lead to a place in order 
to be able to go there next. 

The theme starts over in each variation. From time to time ask, "Where 
are we now?" The child should number the sections, a£ they occur in the 
music, in the spaces provided. Remember that several listenings are necessary 
for complete success. 

Evaluation : By walking around and observing, the teacher can determine 
where the child is on the map. Also, by the responses to "Where are 
we now?" the teacher can identify the students who initiate correct answers 
and are recognizing the sections by sound. 



APPROACH III 

(The following movement approach to "Variations on America" can be 
performed suitably as part of a patriotic program.) 

Concept : (Psychomotor and Cognitive Domains) Moving to form in music. 

B ehavioral Objective : After several rehearsals the students will be able 
to demonstrate through simple movement the form a"d character of "Variations 
on America" by Charles Ives. 

Procedure : Divide the class into seven groups (or less, as a group can 

perform more than once) and assign each group to a different area of 

a large open space. As the music begins all groups are sitting in their 

circles Indian style (or on their feet) until the xylophone section 

toward the end of the Introduction is heard. When the xylophone part begins, 

all groups rise and prepare to perform. 

The rhythm of "America" is written in its entirety in the "Theme" below. 
The theme divides into two sections, A and B. This division will be demon- 
strated in the movement of the first three groups. The movement is indicated 
beneath the theme rhythm in each section except the "Brass Interlude" where 
it is not needed. 

Group 1 performs the theme and each group follows as directed below. 



GROUP 1 - Theme - Circle (join hands) 





Circle 


right 


A 3 

4 


My country 

; ; ; 


Dance 


< r 


f 




R L 


R 



tis 



r 



;; ) 


;. 


r r r 

R L R 


r 

L 



).n 



R L R 



V 

Turn (on bells) 



25 



Circle left 
"Land where mv 



Dance 



))) 

(f( 

L R L 



IT) 

f 



fff 



)j> tnn 



f 



L R L R 



(f r 

L R L 



r 



r r r 



r 



L R L'R 



GROUP 2 - Variation 1 - Bend and Swing. Use the most creative, uninhibited 
(but not silly) students here. 



"My Country ' tis 



A 
Dance 



) J ; 



«3 



r ..... f. 



). n 



)) J 



etc . 



*L 



-» 






of Thee I sine 

J. 



; ; ; 

r 






While facing the center of the circle and standing in place, sway the 
upper body from left to right, back and forth, changing directions on 
the downbeat. 




S' / / 




etc 



Right 



Left 



While standing in place, swing the upper body down twice in large 
swoops. Arrive straight on the downbeat and hold for three beats. 
Alternate swinging left and right. Make fluttering hand movements 
and gradually shrink to the floor on the descending passage at the 
end. Drop to the floor on the snare drum rim shot. 

GROUP 3 - Variation 2 - Step and Slide . 



A 
Da 



nee / P Iff 



etc . 



Step Slide 
R L 



Step 



R Slide L 







(Laughing 


( 




S] ^ trum- 


"ofJThtee Jl 


sir 


g j J )) J-| Pets) 


ff 




f XL, 


Step Slide 


Step Sway in place 


R L 


R L R 




^ Arms around each 






others' shoulders 



: c 



j ) ) 

Dance f P 






etc . 



L Slide R 



'Let freedom 

Y))\ 
i f 

L Slide 

n Step R Sway in place 




p ending) 





Continue arms around shoulders 



- Brass Interlude - Human Machine . Good for boys and inhibited dancers 
Students form a human machine by bending, interlocking, etc. They leave 
some extremities free to move. When the brass Interlude begins, "parts" of the 
machine move in time to the quarter note beat. Try to have arms and legs and 
heads moving in and out, up and down, and round and round simultaneously. 




GROUP 5 - Variation 3 - Skip 



Dance 



r i r t 



r c r c 



\ i 

( V 

Skip L Skip R Skip L Skip R Skip 



etc . 



B (Same as A) 

The individual skips away from the circle in a free area and returns to 
the same place by the end of B. The dancer should listen carefully for and 
anticipate the pauses, freeze on the pauses, and resume skipping when the music 
continues. Repeat. On the repeat, notice that there is a '2nd chance" ending 
for late comers to get back into the circle. Have a couple of students pur- 
posely not get back on the first ending and slip in on the "2nd chance." 

GROUP 6 - Variation A - Spanish Dance . 
There are 6 beats of introduction. Begin the dance when the song begins. 



Dance 




Face right 



f* 

L 



!> 



). y > 



etc 



(Same as A) Note: Dance on the heels, and keep the feet close to the 

floor. Face alternate directions on each downbeat. 
Strongly accent the heels on downbeats. B repeats. 



27 



Short Interlude. .Next group gets ready, 
GROUP 7 - Variation 5 - Prance. 



Trumpets 
A Woodwinds 

Dance 



B 



n n n 
) > > 

{ i i 






etc 



(Same as A) 

Prance barefooted (no socks) on toes on the quarter note beat, away from 
the circle. Be back in place at the end of the song. "A" repeats. Then there 
is a slower stretched out and extended B ending. The children's prance should 
become gentle "toe first" leaps at the slower tempo. 

ENDING . Create with the whole class a military style movement for the ending. 
All groups can be involved. For a program, unfurl a giant American flag at the 
end . 



Evaluation : There is worth in moving through the form of the music even if 
steps and actions are not precisely on the beat. Of course the objective, 
which can be observed, is for the children to closely approximate both the 
rhythm/meter and the form of the music through their movements. Precision is 
more likely with practice, which, in turn, means more exposure to Variations 
on"America " for the children. 

THE SONGS AND RHYTHM SCORES 

The two songs on this year's program are "When the Saints Go Marching In" 
and "America." "America" is also the song for children to play at the concert. 
The rhythm score is based on the "Can-Can" from Orpheus in Hades . 

"When the Saints Go Marching In" is one of the most popular of all American 
folk songs and provides the opportunity for some hand-clapping and echo responses 
between phrases of the chorus. There are many different words to this song. I 
have chosen some of the traditional choruses and written some new verses. 



The correct order of the verses and choruses is: 
Verse 2; Chorus 1 . 



Verse 1; Choruses 1, 2, 3; 



The words to the songs should be memorized. 

"America" was originally commissioned by the 19th century music educator, 
Lowell Mason. He asked a divinity student, Samuel Francis Smith, to write the words 
for a patriotic hymn and gave him a German songbook from which to choose a tune. 
Smith was unaware that the song he selected was also the British National Anthem. 
Its first performance was given in Boston on Independence Day, 1831 and was sung by 
a chorus of children. 

The instructions for the instrumental group are in Your North Carol ina Symphony 
Book . A suggestion of instruments is listed which is not intended to be exhaustive. 
We particularly want to encourage young string players and hope they will be in- 
cluded if there are some in your community. Be sure to have the instrumentalists 
memorize their music so they can keep their heads up and watch the conductor. 

Associate Conductor Jim Ogle has provided a rhythm score for the "Can-Can." We 
hope that it will be useful in your classroom and provide some playing experience and 
opportunity to discuss meter, instrumentation, conducting, etc. Try it with and 
without the recording. 



28 

BIOGRAPHIES 

BARBARA BAIR is chairman of instruction of undergraduate music education at 
the University of North Carolina at Greensboro and is associate professor of 
music education. She has a B.S. degree from Ohio State University and a 
masters degree in music education from UNC-G. She is chairman of the Exceptional 
Education Committee of the North Carolina Music Educators Association. 

ANN R. SMALL is an assistant professor of music education at UNC-G and has been 
on the faculty there since 1977. She received a bachelor's degree in music ed- 
ucation from Wheaton College, a master's degree from Auburn, and a Ph.D. from 
Florida State University. 

PAULA REYNOLDS teaches general music in the Guilford County elementary schools 
and also conducts sixth grade choruses. She received a B.A. in music education 
from UNC-G and is currently working toward a master's degree there. 

CHERYL RHODES is a K-6 music specialist in the Buncombe County Schools. She 
has a bachelor of music education degree from Furman University and is working 
toward a master's degree in music education at Western Carolina University. 

PATRICIA BEYLE teaches elementary general music in the Chapel Hill Schools. She 
has a bachelor's degree in music education from Syracuse University and a master's 
degree from UNC in special education. 

JACKSON PARKHURST is director of education of the North Carolina Symphony and 
assistant conductor. He received his bachelor's degree from Duke University and 
a master's degree in orchestral conducting from Manhattan School of Music. He 
has also attended the Juilliard School and studied musicology at UNC-Chapel Hill. 

NOTES 

Copies of Your North Carolina Symphony Book , Teachers Handbook , and recordings of 
the music on this year's program can be purchased from the Symphony office. The 
recordings are: 

Prairie Overture Musical Heritage Society 1600L 

Water Music Suite Seraphim 60276 

Orpheus in Hades RCA AGL 1-3657 

Polovetsian Dances Odyssey Y-30044 (used last year for Capriccio Espagnol ) 

Variations on "America " Columbia MS7289 

Please place your orders early enough to allow two weeks for delivery. 

We recommend that each child own his own copy of Your North Carolina Symphony Book . 

Be sure to check other sources such as your school and local libraries for additional 
information on this year's program. "Teacher's Edition/5" of the new Silver Burdett 
text Music , has information on "When the Saints..." and Edition/4 has information on 
"America." There is information on "When the Saints..." in Holt, Reinhart, and Winston's 
The Music Book VI and on Ives' Variations on "America " in Book VII. In addition to 
general material available on orchestral music and instruments, Jam Handy has a film 
strip on G. F. Handel. Also, be sure to check the resources of the Department of 
Public Instruction. 

The North Carolina Symphony wishes to thank the music educators who wrote for this 
publication for their cooperation and enthusiasm. 

The North Carolina Symphony welcomes and encourages your comments. Address all 
corresponcence to: Jackson Parkhurst, Director of Education and Assistant Conductor, 
North Carolina Symphony, P. 0. Box 28026, Raleigh, N. C. 27611. (919) 733-2750.